Flatulence is bloating and increased flatulence in the intestines. The cause of this disorder in healthy people may be the specificity of the food or a tendency to constipation: the incoming food lingers in the intestine, causes putrefactive processes, producing gases. Abundant gas formation may indicate the development of the disease.
Physiological processes associated with gas formation
The intestine of a healthy person contains about 200 milliliters of gases. A day they circulate in the body about 20 liters:
- These are gases that are formed as a result of the breakdown of food in the intestine ─ hydrogen, methane, as well as some amount of nitrogen and sulfur compounds (they have an unpleasant smell). They produce about 75%.
- It is carbon monoxide produced by the interaction of gastric acid and pancreatic pancreatic juice.
- This is the air that enters the body when swallowing and through the blood enters the intestine.
Removal of gases from the body through the rectum (passage of flatulentsii), belching, entering it in the blood and with exhaled air. The direction of dispersion (exchange) of gases is determined depending on the muscle tone of the diaphragm and the abdominal wall, on the motor activity of the intestine. High density of feces, impaired metabolic function makes it difficult to dissipate with blood. This forms large accumulations of gases.
The volume of gases and the frequency of their release in healthy people is individual. The number of passages from 13 to 21 times per day is considered to be a natural and normal number of passages of flatulence. This is not flatulence, but a natural physiological process.
Predisposition to flatulence is explained by differences in the composition of microflora. Causes of bloating may be as follows:
- eating violation;
- violation of digestive processes, dysbiosis;
- predominance of gas-forming bacteria;
- a violation of the motor activity of the gastrointestinal tract;
- mechanical disorders of the excretory function of the intestine;
- increase of pressure in the intestine during ascent;
- Emotional-mental disorders.
The emergence of flatulence contributes to the food products with high gas-forming potential:
|Dairy||soft cheeses, ice cream|
|Vegetables||onions, celery, cabbage, radishes, onions, carrot cucumbers, potatoes|
|Fruits||apples, peaches, plums, grapes, bananas, pears, apricots|
|Yeast Dough Bread||bread and unrefined grain products, buns, bagels, pizza|
|Legumes||peas, beans, bob|
|Grains||wheat germ, products from corn and oats, processed bran|
|Other Products||raisins, beer, mushrooms|
Increased gas formation causes nourishment with fatty foods; ration 1 ─ 2 times a day in large portions, which causes an increased load on the stomach and large intestine.
In disorders of the digestive processes, flatulence is observed in patients with enzymatic deficiency, a violation of the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids, with dysbacteriosis. With the deterioration of the motor activity of the intestine, flatulence is characteristic of aerophagy (ingestion of large portions of air), intoxication, scleroderma (connective tissue disease), and during surgical interventions. The development of aerophagia contributes to the rush during a meal, talking over a meal, smoking, drinking carbonated drinks, chewing gum, candy, unsuccessfully fitted dentures. Aerophagia manifests itself in anxiety, tick, hysterical neurosis.
Clinical signs of flatulence are quite pronounced:
- increased gas discharge;
- increase in the volume of the abdomen, its bloating;
- pain in the abdominal area.
Abdominal distension gives the feeling that it is bursting, it increases in volume, clothes are cramped, there is a rumbling. The patient from time to time feels dull or aching pain in different parts of the abdominal cavity without a clear positioning. With gas colic painful cramps. The pain goes away after the passage of flatulentsii.
Also, flatulence causes the following disorders: nausea, bad breath, diarrhea or stool retention, lack of appetite.
A variety of factors affecting the occurrence of flatulence is the main problem in treating this disorder. If nutrition is the leading cause of flatulence, diet is the basis of treatment. It is necessary to eat foods with low gas-forming potential: white rice, bananas, citrus fruits, hard cheeses, white meat, eggs, non-carbonated drinks, yogurt. To determine the individual reaction of the body to food, test elimination diets are carried out – alternately excluding “suspicious” products. Listen carefully to the reaction of your own body to a different combination of products.
With aerophagy, the treatment of flatulence will be successful if you get rid of bad habits:
- Do not eat quickly, avoid talking while eating.
- Refuse to chewing gum, candy. Do not drink through a straw. Exclude carbonated drinks and beer from the diet.
- Less smoking.
- Sugar-containing foods, fruits and juices from them should be consumed 2 to 3 hours after ingestion of protein foods, and preferably 30 minutes before meals.
If the cause of flatulence is a disease, treatment involves the use of comprehensive measures aimed at healing or alleviating the pathology, relieving its symptoms.
Drug treatment of flatulence:
- Enterosorbents – enterosgel, diosmectite, activated carbon, polyphepan. Preparations of this group bind and excrete harmful substances from the body, toxins, which produce higher gases.
- Defoamers ─ simethicone-based drugs. A large number of gas bubbles in the liquid forms a foam. The action of these drugs is based on reducing the surface tension of a gas bubble.
- Non-pancreatic enzymes that facilitate the digestion of carbohydrates.
- Nonabsorbable antibiotics ─ rifaximin. The drug is excreted in the feces unchanged, its concentration in the blood does not increase.
Well eliminates flatulence drug Espumizan (simethicone). It prevents the formation of bubbles, destroys them, and also eliminates belching and bloating. The drug can be taken by diabetics and patients with digestive disorders. Espumizan acts locally and is completely excreted in the feces. The drug is safe and can be used for a long time.
“Carminative” products help to treat flatulence:
- dill, fennel;
- collection of equal parts of fennel fruits, peppermint leaves and valerian root; it also has an antispasmodic effect;
- cumin seeds.
Flatulence is common, but little studied. One of the pressing questions is to determine whether gas formation is excessive or simply the abnormal sensitivity of the intestine gives the person discomfort.